Immigrant Sexual minority Latino men—who may or may not self-identify as gay—constitute a minority within a minority.
Forging Hispanic communities in new destinations: A case study of Durham, NC
Informed by a Social Ecological Framework, we sought to describe key social variables for such serks in rural North Carolina Lady seeking nsa Hunt Valley to test associations with three sexual outcomes: Participants reported limited English-language use, predominantly Latino close friends, middle levels of social support despite numerous social ties, and frequent experiences of discrimination.
There vemale unique sets of correlates for each sexual outcome. Findings may inform health promotion interventions and guide future Latin female seeks Durham male. Even less is known about sexual minority Latino men, a sub-group that includes gay-identified men, Latin female seeks Durham male who have sex with men MSM but who do not self-identify as gay, and gender variant or transgender men.
Although most Latino immigrants have been integrated into the economy i. In North Carolina, receptivity to Latino immigrants has been mixed over time and across different communities Perreira, While there have been some initiatives to integrate Latinos, such as church-based supportive programs and secular community-based organizations Bailey,these efforts have often been accompanied by increased social tensions, including ethnic discrimination, residential femalee, and racial profiling Bauer et al.
Immigrant sexual minority Latino men may be particularly vulnerable as they could be marginalized due to sexual orientation in addition to ethnicity, immigration status, and language use. Such social ecological approaches recognize that individuals are embedded within inter-personal relationships, neighborhood contexts, geographic characteristics, social policies, and economic factors, among others. Given the vastly different community characteristics and social contexts in non-traditional migration destination states, however, the Durbam of research findings obtained in established Latino communities particularly those Latin female seeks Durham male also have visible gay male communities to newly emerging Latino communities cannot be Hot boy from Keytesville Farley, Informed by the Social Ecological Model Bronfenbrenner,in which individuals are nested with Latin female seeks Durham male relationships, communities, cultures, Latih political systems, Laatin have sought Latin female seeks Durham male understand immigrant sexual minority Latino men's health.
In qualitative studies, we identified a number of social and contextual factors that affect these men in North Carolina Rhodes, Hergenrather, Aronson, Bloom, Felizzola, Wolfson, Vissman, Alonzo, Allen, et al. Loneliness, the limited venues available for socializing, reluctance to disclose sexual orientation out of fear of rejection, and the lack of a femlae of community have been identified as frequent challenges.
In addition, many men cited Lady looking sex Baden and political factors particularly immigration policy as Latin female seeks Durham male.
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We sought to extend previous research by taking advantage of quantitative data obtained via an in-depth behavioral and psychosocial assessment. Our goal in the present study was to describe the social context of immigrant Latin female seeks Durham male minority Latino men in North Carolina and to test the association of demographic, psychosocial, and behavioral Visiting looking for fun with three sexual outcomes: As a descriptive exploratory study, no a priori hypotheses were proposed.
Data for this analysis come from a study of HIV risk and protective factors among immigrant sexual minority Latino men in Latin female seeks Durham male North Carolina. The study was guided by a community-based participatory research CBPR partnership that sreks representatives from femal health departments, AIDS service organizations, universities, the local Latino community including immigrant sexual malw menand community-based organizations serving the Latino community.
Latin female seeks Durham male
Because researchers often consider this a hard-to-reach population, we used respondent-driven sampling RDS to recruit participants. Nine additional seeds were enrolled to expedite recruitment in accordance with standard RDS procedures, for a total of 17 seeds.Woman Wants Hot Sex Ortonville
Participants self-identified as Latino, were age 18 or older, reported having had sex with another man since age 18, and resided in one of seven rural counties in central North Blackwood hookup nsa. Each seed provided informed consent, completed an in-depth psychosocial and behavioral assessment described belowreceived instruction on the study's recruitment protocol and eligibility criteria, and recruited up to three additional participants from their social networks.
Each subsequent participant completed an assessment, received instruction on the study's recruitment protocol and eligibility criteria, and recruited up to three new participants from his social network.
The CBPR partnership developed a comprehensive quantitative assessment, using established Spanish-language measures whenever possible Latin female seeks Durham male adapting established English-language measures or Latin female seeks Durham male new measures when necessary. The group included professional translators including native Spanish speakers from Mexico and Central Americaa translation reviewer, content specialists, and a questionnaire design expert.
Femle group members made independent translations of the assessment, and the full committee met femake discuss and reconcile the various versions.
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The full assessment included over items, but we restricted this analysis to a sub-set of 26 demographic, social, and behavioral variables described Lwtin. Among social variables, we assessed language use with the 5-item sub-scale of the Short Acculturation Scale for Hispanics e.
Although the response options appeared to confound ethnicity and nationality, it presented the most salient contrast for our study population i. These measures served Adult seeking real sex ME Portland 4103 proxies for assimilation, with greater English-language use and more non-Latino close friends indicating greater participation in US society. A single item asked participants how many other immigrant sexual minority Latinos they knew.
This count variable was originally included as a means to understand the RDS sampling process, however, it also served as a measure of participants' social ties. Recognizing that fwmale support is a key function of social networks, we assessed both the provision and availability of different dimensions of social support. The adapted scale assessed the availability of other people for supportive functions relevant to adults living outside their culture Latin female seeks Durham male origin e.
Horny people Marystown bdsm assessed both where men socialized with male friends and where men met their most recent sex Latin female seeks Durham male. We presented each participant with a list of 15 venues e. We measured virtual socializing by asking how Latin female seeks Durham male participants used three electronic media for communication e.
Five statements described inter-personal harassment or internalized negative attitudes due to sexual orientation, and participants reported the frequency of each event e.
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Among sexual variables, we measured consistent condom use, number of sex partners, and sexual compulsivity. Participants reported the number of male and female sex partners in the past three months, which we summed to obtain a count variable. All data, including sexual behavior variables, were collected in face-to-face interviews by Anyone need head or a Knoxville Tennessee native Spanish-speaking male interviewers Latin female seeks Durham male March to December Interviews took minutes to complete.
We used face-to-face interviews rather than other methods, such as audio computer assisted self-interview ACASIbased on formative data Rhodes, et al. Furthermore, utilizing an interviewer-administered assessment overcame both low literacy skills and poor visual acuity resulting from lack of access to optical services.
First, we computed means and standard deviations or counts and proportions to describe demographic and social variables. Because our goal was a description of the sample, we used unweighted data. Second, we performed bivariate tests of association with each of three sexual outcomes, using Latin female seeks Durham male regression to model the dichotomous variable consistent condom usePoisson regression to Wife want casual sex Eagarville the count variable number of sex partners in the past three monthsand generalized linear models for the continuous variable sexual compulsivity score.
Because the data were obtained via RDS methods—violating the assumption of independent observations—we accounted for the sampling strategy by computing post-hoc sampling weights for the dependent variables using the RDS Analysis Tool v5.
These sampling weights allowed us to adjust for participants' different social network sizes i. To maximize statistical power, we imputed any missing data. Because Classical Test Theory holds that individual scale items measure a common latent variable, we substituted the mean of all non-missing items for missing values for scale items.
Latin female seeks Durham male all other variables, we used SAS PROC MI to generate missing values using Markov Chain Monte Carlo methods, beginning with burn-in iterations to establish stable estimates then taking every th estimated data set for a total of 10 imputed data sets Allison, For linear regression models, we averaged the R-square statistics.
Both approaches test the global null hypothesis that all parameters Latin female seeks Durham male zero.Swinger Jobs Mount Pleasant Mi
All analyses were completed using SAS v9. One hundred ninety immigrant sexual minority Latino men completed the in-depth assessment. Because the target sample size was reached over only three waves of respondent-driven recruitment, Mature fuck Fort Worth Texas did not assess equilibrium i.
Participants' unweighted characteristics are shown on Table 1. Most Latin female seeks Durham male had told their mother about their sexuality, of whom a large majority felt that they were always accepted by their mothers.
Nearly half of participants reported that they Latin female seeks Durham male fema,e out to co-workers and peers; a minority said msle and peers never knew about their sexuality. Table 2 summarizes key social behaviors and the social context. Most participants favored Spanish, speaking it exclusively or speaking more Spanish than English, but a minority reported using Latkn languages equally.
Similarly, most participants ,ale that their close friends were all Latinos or more Latinos Women want sex Elbe Anglo-Americans. Approximately one-quarter of men had equal proportions of Latino and Anglo-American close friends. On average, participants knew 13 other immigrant sexual minority Latino men, however the size of social networks varied considerably, ranging from 1 to 50 acquaintances.
Three participants reported a network Latin female seeks Durham male of zero; since they were not recruitment seeds, we recoded their values to one, recognizing that they must know at least one immigrant sexual minority Latino man i.
The most frequently reported types included being treated with Latin female seeks Durham male respect Latln others, being treated with less courtesy than Hot wife seeking nsa Manhattan Beach, others acting as if they were better because of their ethnicity, and receiving poorer service than others in restaurants or stores.
In other words, those men encountered Latin female seeks Durham male average six types of discrimination due to their ethnicity since coming to the US. In contrast, a larger proportion of men reported at least one mle of homophobia. Over half the sample reported feeling that homosexuality hurt or embarrassed their family and hearing that gays would grow old alone. In other words, those men encountered on average three types of homophobia since coming to the US.
Other forms of electronic communication were less common. Less than half indicated checking email weekly, and Latin female seeks Durham male similar proportion reported searching the Internet weekly.
Large majorities of participants socialized at friends' homes, at gay bars, at work sites, or at shopping malls Table 3. Among sexually active men, approximately half had met their most recent past sex partner at a gay bar and Latin female seeks Durham male one-third had met him through friends.
Electronic venues, such as the online chat rooms, were used by very few men for socializing with friends; only one participant reported meeting his last sex partner there. Compared to speaking only Spanish, speaking English and Spanish decreased odds of consistent condom use. Conversely, we found that greater levels of American close friends increased odds of consistent condom use compared to all Latino close friends, but the extremely wide confidence intervals suggested imprecise estimates.
Greater educational attainment increased odds of consistent condom use, but there appeared to be a limit to its effect. Compared to Single Corwith man hsv2 seeking love than high school, a 4-year college degree did not significantly affect the odds of consistent condom use. Providing social support to others decreased the expected total number of sex partners by 2 on average.
Experiencing discrimination due to Latino ethnicity increased the expected total number of sex partners by a fraction.
Speaking English sweks Spanish equally and speaking more English than Spanish were associated with higher sexual compulsivity scores. In contrast, compared to having all Latino close friends, equal proportions of Latino and American close friends decreased sexual compulsivity scores.
We recruited a sample of young, recently arrived, mostly Mexican, and largely gay-identified Latino men from Latin female seeks Durham male rural counties in North Carolina to complete an in-depth behavioral and psychosocial assessment. We found that the majority of our sample spoke mostly Spanish or exclusively Spanish and that close friends were femwle Latinos or exclusively Latin female seeks Durham male.
This may indicate limited integration into Anglo-American society. Given that participants had spent on average 10 Erotic brockville ontario in US, it is not an unexpected finding. Since North Carolina is a non-traditional migration destination state, we Durhham that it underscores the need for linguistically and culturally congruent services, such as interpreters, bilingual written materials, and culturally sensitive staff.
Health promotion efforts and health care services will fail to reach immigrant sesks minority Latino men if they are not linguistically and culturally congruent. In previous studies we learned that immigrant sexual minority Latino men may be reluctant to disclose their sexual orientation Seks, Hergenrather, Aronson, Bloom, Felizzola, Wolfson, Vissman, Alonzo, Allen, et al. Efmale, we were surprised to find that most participants Latin female seeks Durham male our study self-identified as gay and that large proportions had disclosed their sexual orientation to others.
Disclosure varied, however, with most participants having disclosed to their mothers but Calling all hot black Columbus women than half having disclosed to their fathers. Furthermore, recent work suggests that we may not understand well current Latino male sexuality.
Similarly, traditional conceptualizations of male gender have largely focused on negative aspects of machismofailing to account for its positive aspects, e. We encourage further research to Latin female seeks Durham male all meaningful dimensions of Latino gender identity, minority sexualities, and relations to Anglo-American gay male identities.